3-Dimensional electrical impedance spectroscopy for in situ endoluminal mapping of metabolically active plaques


Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been recognized to characterize oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the metabolically active plaque. However, intravascular deployment of 3-D EIS-derived electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for endoluminal mapping of oxLDL-laden arterial walls remains an unmet clinical challenge. To this end, we designed the 6-point microelectrode arrays that were circumferentially configurated onto the balloon catheter for 15 intravascular EIS permutations. In parallel, we created the metabolically active plaques by performing partial ligation of right carotid artery in Yorkshire mini-pigs (n = 6 males), followed by demonstrating the plaque progression at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks of high-fat diet via computed tomography (CT) angiogram. Next, we deployed the 3-D EIS sensors to the right and left carotid arteries, and we demonstrated 3-D EIS mapping of metabolically active endolumen in the right but not left carotid arteries as evidenced by the positive E06 immunostaining for oxLDL-laden regions. By considering electrical conductivity (σ) and permittivity (ε) properties of collagen, lipid, and smooth muscle presence in the arterial wall, we further validated the 3-D EIS-derived EIT by reconstructing the histology of right and left carotid arteries for the finite element modeling of the oxLDL-laden endolumen, and we accurately predicted 3-D EIS mapping. Thus, we establish the capability of 3-D EIS-derived EIT to detect oxLDL-laden arterial walls with translational implication to predict metabolically active plaques prone to acute coronary syndromes or stroke.

Sensors and Actuators B Chemical
Xiao Xiao (肖潇)
Xiao Xiao (肖潇)

My research focuses on bioelectronics and bioinspired materials for energy and healthcare applications.